The materials used to make a scratch-plow have changed over time, but the working principle is timeless. A traction animal (mule, horse, ox, or donkey) provides horizontal force. The plowman steers the beast and provides a vertical force. In this way agricultural fields of the Mediterranean Basin have be turned for millennia.
Here, a young Palestinian works a small plot between olive trees near the community of Beth-horon. Secondary crops, like cereal grains, are often planted between the trees.